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Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Digital Interface Third Part

These are notes made of Telegram Messenger - messages i sent. Only my Messages are combined here to create paragraphs. Related to Interfacing an Embedded System to external circuits.

Pull up means a resistor connected from a point to +V. Pull Down is Resistor connected from a Point to GND.  The point can be a Gate Input, Opamp Input or a Port Output. We use these when open collector output is used,  this way we can get a clear High Or Low or avoid a point to float(no potential)

Industrial Process Control Circuits

When uC is sleeping outputs should be written high. Which is also high impedance  like a insulator- The pull up of 100 k is put to keep the point high

Diode and Zener Clamp Protection

Here are two examples of IO protection from my older circuits. The diode or Schottky protection is for circuits measuring low voltage inputs like mV. Schottky forward drop on low currents is as low as 200mV. General Purpose diodes like 1N4148 have a drop of 400mV at low currents. Use low leakage zeners if you are protecting digital inputs. you can also diode clamp to VCC and GND or VDD too. Then inputs can swing betwwen VCC and VDD.

Diode and Zener Clamp Protection

When a low is written to the port a current Ib flows from vcc thru emmiter to base via a cuurent limit resistor. Beta times Ib which may be like 200 times ib flows from emitter to collector. This is the amplified Ic - Transistor switches on and saturates like a switch. - Vce may go as low as 0.5 volt on proper load

Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Digital Interface Part Two

Continuation of Digital Interface Discussion, only my part of the communication here. This will help you understand some common methods and issues.

Use a IO port to drive low (not pulse) the base of this PNP with a resistor 10K, emitter is +V and collector is the output to power the Sensor V+. You can use a pull up resistor on the port like 47K to keep noise low.

InfraRed LED Flasher for Optical Switch

Try things practically before you connect to the Embedded System. Make test codes to check your interface circuits, watch the LEDs flash on off on the sensor. Test the sensor with obstacle and see if a clean High Low pulse is seen with a scope or DMM on a Port input.

There has to be a 100 uF 16V Electrolytic Cap in the Breadboard across +/- (supply terminals) coming from Battery. This is the first decoupling cap to prevent oscillations. It acts as a mini battery.  It should be on the board and not soldered across the battery.

Optical Retro-Reflective Proximity Switch

It may be a good idea to use this polulo sensor which can be easily enabled and disabled. This will resolve most of the issues of interfacing basic IR circuits. This post is about other raw IR sensors which need more circuit to interface well.

pololu IR sensor

Pololu 38 kHz IR Proximity Sensor, Fixed Gain, High Brightness

Yo may need a bleeder resistor 10K across the supply terminals of both the proximity switches. This ensures the cap in the proximity switch discharges after you turn off the supply within a few mS determined by the 104 decoupling cap in the proximity switch and the bleeder a 10K will do.

Monday, January 29, 2018

Digital Interface Basics

After a long time a thread of discussion in Gmail and Telegram (first time). It is about digital interfacing of embedded system. Only Education Points listed. Initials and country of origin also will not be mentioned henceforth.

When this Circuits FAQ started decades back around 2000, It was a PHP mail form called "Problems and Solutions". The mail was coming like 3-4 every day. Now in 2017-18 it is very rare and it is a bit of a relief too. The New Contact Form is Here - delabs Contact Form - upload files like circuits or datasheets too.

Question

Hello Sir. I am looking for someone that can help me with simple challenges from time to time, deciding on best electrical components and designing wired circuit diagrams to my specifications. Thank you!"

Only the delabs Answers

The output logic of your embedded system port bit (one pin) goes high  it can drive a drive a ULN2003A. - The output of this is open collector and can operate relays or lamps.

Using the ULN2003A

The Proximity Sensor can be turned on with an external PNP power transistor if the current consumption of that is above 300mA. It is not a good idea to heat The ULN2003A chip too much. Keep the return paths of these to a separate but linked ground ans they carry more current.

If you are running short of ports in the Embedded System. Latch the Output by using 74HCT373. There may be logic level comparability problems check your Embedded System Supply. There may be ground loop problems.

Use ULN to drive PNP Transistor and Relay, Lamp or your Proximity Switch.

It is important to learn and do things, this is the real electronics.  Do not overload any device, study current and voltage ratings. Keep Mains HV and High Current circuits that are dangerous in another card with optoisolaters.

Monday, December 18, 2017

Calculate THD - Total Harmonic Distortion

I want to know about IEEE 519 Harmonics standards. And Formulas to calculate Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for Voltage and Current according IEEE standards. Till now i am calculating by taking Square root of the ratio of the sum of the squares of the total harmonics to the fundamental harmonics.

And i am measuring the I THD and V THD by using fluke meter. I want to know how to calculate the THD as per IEEE standards.

Mail from RB

Have a look at these pages .. Total harmonic distortion In power systems, lower THD means reduction in peak currents, heating, emissions, and core loss in motors.

IEEE Std 519-2014 (Revision of IEEE Std 519-1992) - IEEE Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems

This document sets the quality of power that is to be provided at the point of common coupling.

Harmonic Currents - Power quality

Power quality used to be to the ability of the electric utilities to provide electric power without interruption. Today, power quality encompasses any deviation from a perfect sinusoidal waveform. This includes EMI and RFI noise, transients, surges, sags, brown outs, black outs, and any other distortions to the sinusoidal waveform.

Calculate THD - Total Harmonic Distortion

Spectrum Harmonic Analysis Software

Spectrum harmonic analysis software makes it possible to identify and mitigate harmonic and power-quality problems with a few simple mouse clicks—straight from a dynamic one-line.

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Thank you sir,
i ll try to go through the web sites.

Mail from RB

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