Search This Blog

Monday, October 14, 2019

Leakage of SSR driving AC Solenoid

message: I have a 115vac ssr powering a solenoid only pulling a 160ma. upon activation 115vac is applied, but upon deactivation 78vac is still present. I'm told I need a bleeder resistor, but no one knows exactly what size? Can you help?

Mail from GH USA


When a solenoid draws 160mA, you dont need a bleeder. That itself is a bleeder. The leakage of the ssr is very less, it is mainly the current thru the snubber caps.

The SSR cannot leak so much, Is the solenoid a simple coil solenoid or has circuitry? A coil solenoid is also a bleeder for the 1 or 2mA max AC current from caps.

If the solenoid has some control circuit then you may need a bleeder, put a 100K 250V 1W. It also could be a defective SSR or a NC (normally closed) SSR with improper control signal.

Read More - Solid State Relays SSR.

SSR driving AC Solenoid - delabs

Check if control and load circuits are isolated too, make careful measurements across the ssr. Tell me if you still are in doubt.

See the connection diagram

Connection Diagrams of SSR

delabs


Battery Level Indicator

Do you have a battery level indicator for a 24V Ni-Mh recharegeable battery source ? Prefer the display as a LED or LCD traveling bar graph.

Mail from EY


have a look at  BVM1 - 12 Volt Battery Voltage Monitor then let me know better, how i could help you.

delabs


Thanks for the effort and your effort.

I think the www.solorb.com is good. and the instrument looks good and simple to implement. Now I am studying the circuit of solorb

Reply from EY



Battery Level Indicator - delabs

Battery Level Indicator


This circuit uses a LM339, a quad comparator. LM339 can work on single or dual supplies, it has a open collector output that can drive 15mA, low power consumption. The circuit is an untested design but it should work. I did it as many searches were made in my webpages with these keywords.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Digital Interface Part Two

Continuation of Digital Interface Discussion, only my part of the communication here. This will help you understand some common methods and issues.

Use a IO port to drive low (not pulse) the base of this PNP with a resistor 10K, emitter is +V and collector is the output to power the Sensor V+. You can use a pull up resistor on the port like 47K to keep noise low.

InfraRed LED Flasher for Optical Switch

Try things practically before you connect to the Embedded System. Make test codes to check your interface circuits, watch the LEDs flash on off on the sensor. Test the sensor with obstacle and see if a clean High Low pulse is seen with a scope or DMM on a Port input.

There has to be a 100 uF 16V Electrolytic Cap in the Breadboard across +/- (supply terminals) coming from Battery. This is the first decoupling cap to prevent oscillations. It acts as a mini battery.  It should be on the board and not soldered across the battery.

Optical Retro-Reflective Proximity Switch

It may be a good idea to use this pololu sensor which can be easily enabled and disabled. This will resolve most of the issues of interfacing basic IR circuits. This post is about other raw IR sensors which need more circuit to interface well.

pololu IR sensor

Pololu 38 kHz IR Proximity Sensor, Fixed Gain, High Brightness

Yo may need a bleeder resistor 10K across the supply terminals of both the proximity switches. This ensures the cap in the proximity switch discharges after you turn off the supply within a few mS determined by the 104 decoupling cap in the proximity switch and the bleeder a 10K will do.

Digital Interface Conclusion

Here i am listing the last few parts in this Interface discussion. Only Points to remember are listed.

Resistors attenuate voltage or reduce. Current flow has to be limited. The adc may get damaged when voltage above Vcc is applied

Let us assume 4v is applied to a voltage divider of 30k first 10k second. 3v drops across 30k and 1v drops across 10k - This 1v sample can be measured

Values like 10k and 30k are non standard and expensive. Use 1% MFR resistors only

You can go upto 1 mega - Beyond that leakage currents cause errors. A DMM has 10 meg input resistance For the same reason. Not to save battery but to avoid loading the point. Being tested

DMM Amps mode protect

A transistor heats up if it is not fully on or saturated. Ensure it is fully on. - If Vce sat is 0.5 v it is fully conducting -- If Ic is 1A and Vce is 0.5 V then heat dissipated is 1 x 0.5 watts or 500mW

Try out and see the current through motor using DMM carefully with a 10 ohm 5w in series. 10 ohm is to protect DMM at 2A range, In case of short circuit, dmm fuse won't blow. Put dmm, motor and 10 ohm  in series.

Knowing Electrical Basics both theory and practical is important to be a good embedded systems professional. Just dont jump into coding and expect to master the Art of Electronics. 

Friday, September 13, 2019

Digital Interface Third Part

Only my Messages are combined here to create paragraphs. Related to Interfacing an Embedded System to external circuits.

Pull up means a resistor connected from a point to +V. Pull Down is Resistor connected from a Point to GND.  The point can be a Gate Input, Opamp Input or a Port Output. We use these when open collector output is used,  this way we can get a clear High Or Low or avoid a point to float(no potential)

Industrial Process Control Circuits

When uC is sleeping outputs should be written high. Which is also high impedance  like a insulator- The pull up of 100 k is put to keep the point high

Diode and Zener Clamp Protection

Here are two examples of IO protection from my older circuits. The diode or Schottky protection is for circuits measuring low voltage inputs like mV. Schottky forward drop on low currents is as low as 200mV. General Purpose diodes like 1N4148 have a drop of 400mV at low currents. Use low leakage zeners if you are protecting digital inputs. you can also diode clamp to VCC and GND or VDD too. Then inputs can swing betwwen VCC and VDD.

Diode and Zener Clamp Protection

When a low is written to the port a current Ib flows from vcc thru emmiter to base via a cuurent limit resistor. Beta times Ib which may be like 200 times ib flows from emitter to collector. This is the amplified Ic - Transistor switches on and saturates like a switch. - Vce may go as low as 0.5 volt on proper load